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We know the more you learn about concrete, the better informed decisions you will be able to make for your home, business, or community. Below are resources for you to learn more about concrete and why it is the most versatile, affordable, and green material for your construction needs.



Basics of Concrete - Chemical Admixtures

ACI 116R defines the term admixture as "a material other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement, and fiber reinforcement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing."

Chemical admixtures are materials that are added to the constituents of concrete to either enhance its properties; either in its plastic or hardened state, or to modify some specified and desired chemical reaction within the concrete itself.

While the American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines what an admixture is, ASTM sets the standards that an admixture must meet.

The ASTM sections concerning chemical admixtures are:

ASTM C 260 - Air-Entraining Admixtures
ASTM C 494
  Type A - Water-Reducing
  Type B - Retarding
  Type C - Accelerating
  Type D - Water-Reducing & Retarding
  Type E - Water-Reducing & Accelerating
  Type F - High-Range Water-Reducing (HRWR)
  Type G - HRWR & Retarding
ASTM D 98 - Calcium Chloride
ASTM C 869 - Foaming Agents (for use in making Cellular Concrete)
ASTM C 1141 - Admixtures for Shotcrete
ASTM C 1017 - Admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete
ASTM C 979 - Pigments For Integrally Colored Concrete  

Other types of admixtures, which are not listed in ASTM specifications, but are just as valuable to the concrete industry, are:

Microsilica - ACI 234R
Corrosion Inhibitors
Shrinkage Reduction
Hydration Stabilizers
Flowable Fill Additives

Most admixtures are batched into the concrete through dispensers mounted at the concrete plant, while others may be hand dosed into the ready-mix truck once the proper concrete consistency has been confirmed. Most admixtures are metered into the mix in fluid ounces per 100 pounds of total cementitions.

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